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316(b) Summary

316(b) Summary

Existing facilities have seven options to consider implementing in order to comply with 316(b). They are:

  1. Operating a closed cycle system. This involves the use of cooling towers and is one of the most expensive options available.
  2. Operating a centre-flow system that has a maximum through-screen design intake velocity of 0.5 feet per second (fps) (0,15 m/s).
    JOHNSON SCREENS® Passive Intake Solutions and GEIGER® Center Flow Travelling Band Screens comply.
  3. Operating an offshore velocity cap – this has to already exist and be at least 800 (243.84m) feet off shore. This could be an option for limited facilities using seawater.
  4. Operating a modified travelling screen that the EPA or state regulators have deemed meets the final rule and is the best technology available (BTA) for impingement reduction.
    GEIGER MultiDisc® solutions comply
  5. Implementing a combination of technologies. This is a costly solution with multiple stages of equipment used.
  6. Achieving the specified impingement reduction by other means – this Approach requires significant engineering and study requiring a 12 month impingement mortality demonstration to meet the specified minimum rates of mortality. An expensive and risky option.

Aqseptence Group GmbH

Aqseptence Group GmbH

Global Business Unit Water Intake
Hardeckstraße 3
76185 Karlsruhe / Germany

Phone: +49 721 5001-0

Phone (USA): +1 631 839 1297